Negotiation Strategies

If you guys are current with my posts, you know that last post I discussed negotiation styles. In this post we will explore how to negotiate with each style. It is important to do some research to discover which style the person you are negotiating with uses. Looking at his/her past engagements and business resume will be helpful in this situation. After identifying their style try and implement the following strategies to get what you want out of a negotiation.

When dealing with someone who uses the factual style it is important to be precise in presenting your facts. Refer to the past in which the discussed areas have already been proven to work, a business precedent if you will. Be indicative. In other words go from the facts to the principles not vice versa. Also know you dossier and all of its aspects and details. Knowing your record will let you bring more fruitful points to back up your side of the negotiation. Lastly, make sure you document what you say. This can be of huge help when you get further along the process and need to site an aforementioned dialogue.

Dealing with someone who negotiates with an intuitive style is a bit different. You need to focus on the situation as a whole, win the war. Also, project yourself into the future, look for future opportunities. If you are stuck at some point in the negotiation process, tap the imagination and creativity of your partner. You also need to be able to get a good read quickly, build upon the reactions of the other person and you jump from one idea to another.

Using logic when negotiating with a analytical style person. Look for such cases of cause and effect. Connectivity between these elements in important, learn how to analyze the relationships between the various elements of the situation or problem at stake. Also, expect the negotiation to take longer if the person is analytical. Everything will need to be thoroughly thought out. In order to reach a final agreement, analyze various options with their respective pros and cons.

Building a relationship with someone who has a normative negotiating style is crucial. Do this at the onset of the negotiation as it will build your credibility. Show your interest in what the other person is saying in order to demonstrate your interest. Like any negotiation it is also important to recognize his or her values and adjust to them accordingly. More so than any other style, you can appeal to these persons emotions in the negotiation. Be ready to compromise and don’t forget to read their feelings and react to them.

Again, I cannot strive enough to point out, do not tell the person you are negotiating with when you have to leave. Knowledge is power, and with this knowledge they know if they wait you will get more desperate and they will ultimately be able to take advantage of you.

Next time you negotiate try and implement some of these strategies to help gain yourself some extra leverage!

International Negotiation

Negotiation skills are very important if you want to get things done. With that being said, many people are unawares of how to be an effective negotiator. There are some very standard facts you must adhere to when you negotiate starting with:

-Make sure you are negotiating with the appropriate person. There is nothing more annoying then spending a week reaching an agreement with someone then having his boss shoot it down.

-A good negotiator will ALWAYS portray himself at the end of the negotiation even if he got the better deal. The key is making the person you negotiated with feel good about what he accomplished.

With that being said, it is important to understand how and why the person you are negotiating with thinks. Recognition of projective cognitive similarity is of high importance. This means that one assumes that the other perceives, judges, thinks and reasons the way he or she does. This is rarely EVER the case, ESPECIALLY with international negotiation. The awareness of cultural influences and practices is essential. There are 4 crucial steps involved with the cross-cultural negotiation process.

1. Non-task sounding or establishing rapport

2. Positioning- objectives, expectations, preferences

3. Reflection, evaluation and persuasion; determine points of conflict, strenghts and weaknesses, differences

4. Adjustment and agreement

With these steps in mind, you must also understand how you, as an individual, negotiate. We will use a U.S. negotiator as an example.

Typical U.S. negotiators are:

-Overconfident

-Informal

-Language-Challenged

-Expect opponents to have authority

-Impatient

-Forthright

-Persistent

-Reductionists

-Trustworthy

Most of these work against our ability to negotitate. However recognizing such flaws is the first step in making the transition from a sub-par negotiator to a subperb one.

On a seperate note there are several other issues you must consider when negotiating. First off, negotiations can be either strategic, or synergistic. A strategic negotiation is one where resources are limited, and a synergistic negotiation is one where resources are unlimited. Distinguishing between which negotiation you are pursuing is key. Other issues to be considered include:

-Context; high/low

-Time; Poly/Mono

-Risk-Taking Propensity; Cautious/Adventurous

-Decision Making; Authoritative/Consensual

-Final Form; Oral/Written

-Aspirations; Personal/Corporate

-Argument Style; Logical/Emotional

-Protocol; Formal/Informal

Identify these aspects before you go into a negotiation can ultimately decide the negotiations outcome. If you practice due dilligence you automatically have a step up because if you know the philosophies of your negotiating party, you also know how to beat them.

Skilled negotiatiors will also:

-Use interpreters

-Plan; 50% before meeting face to face

-Use fewer irritators

-Make fewere immediate counter-proposals

-Use fewer reasons to back up arguments

-Review the negotiation at its conclusion

-YOU MUST BE ABLE TO WALK AWAY!

Negotiation is just a skilled way of interacting with others to reach a desired outcome. In order to get to that outcome you have to practice obvious principles of respect, tolerating ambiguity, being able to relate to other people, being nonjudgemental, personalizing ones observations,  empathy, and persistance. These aforementioned skills can be categorized into 4 different forms of negotiating, factual, intuitive, normantive, and analytical.

Factual Style: The facts speak for themselves

Behavior:

-Pointing out facts in a neutral way

-Keeping track of what has been said

-Clarifying

-Looking for proof

-Documenting Statements

Intuitive Style: Imagination can solve any problem

Behavior:

-Making warma nd enthusiastic statements

-Being imaginative and creative

-Going beyond the facts

-Coming up with new ideas all the time

-Being deductive

Normative Style: negotiating is bargaining

Behavior:

-Judging, assessing and evaluating the facts according to personal values

-Approving and disapproving

-Offering bargains

-Using status, authority, looking for compromise

Analytical Style: Logic leads to the right conclusions

Behavior:

-Forming reasons

-Drawing conclusions

-Analyzing for cause and effect

-Putting things into logical order

-Weighing pros and cons thoroughly

A Comparison: Jihad vs. McWorld

Religion needs McWorlds technology and McWorlds markets and McWorld needs Jihad and its cultural parochialism to feed its endless appetites. However, Jihad needs McWorld to help spread the culture by the marketable producers whose communication makes Jihad known.

Depending on where you are in the world, Jihad can take different forms. In Europe for example, Jihad takes two forms provincialism, and parochialism. Provincialism sets the periphery against the center while parochialism disdains the city. Both forms threaten the capital city.

The interplay between Jihad and McWorld is also very prevalent wherever you are. In France, language is used to try to defeat McWorld, through websites, text, and conversation. Also, China wants to trade with McWorld but opposes Westernization. Westernization is a the key aspect of McWorld with all of it’s corporate aspects so this conflict can cause great strife.

I am sure many of you have heard on the news about a “Jihad in the Middle East”, you need to know that in the ME Jihad takes on a whole different set of connotations than it does elsewhere. Normally, Jihad (Holy War) is a tern associated with the moral and sometimes armed struggle of believers against the faithlessness and faithless. Islam naturally has less room for secularism, that is the government and religious practices are more closely tied, than any other major world religion. It is important to note that Islam is not opposed to democracy, but to modernization.  Just to be clear, in the context on this blog, Jihad is used to speak to a generic form of fundamentalist opposition to modernity that can be found in most world religions.

You may naturally think that McWorld may support a democracy over Jihad however that is not the case. Neither Jihad nor McWorld allows democracy much room. Individuals cannot live in both domains at once and are always compelled to pick a side. This is because Jihad and McWorld are two moral antinomies. They contradict each other in that each represents an opposing principle or law. With respect to McWorld, market relations are not necessarily a foreground to social interaction, let alone for Democratic social interaction. In the United States the common foreign policy is that in order to promote internationalizing markets, it is important to democratize them. However this is not the case, markets are not designed to do the things that democratic politics do. Democracy is NOT a universal prescription for a McWorld tied form of government.

In conclusion, neither Jihad nor McWorld understand the public realm or the idea that a public area offers a powerful tool to the privatizing and de-democratizing effects of aggressive tribes and aggressive markets. This trend will continue until the terrors of Jihad and the insufficiencies of McWorld end. There is no chance that we can begin on a journey to cooperative human living with such tools in place.

*Sources: ISE, Dr. Meredith

Jihad vs. McWorld- A Broader Definition of Networking

-Jihad includes the forces of disintegral tribalism and reactionary fundamentalism- Islam is not the issue. On the other hand McWorld includes the forces of integrative modernization and aggressive economic and cultural globalization. A broad definition of our world today can be summed up by Jihad vs. McWorld. The parallels between the two are great, each operates with equal strength in opposite ways. Fox example, Jihad forges communities of blood rooted in exclusion and hatred, communities that slight democracy in favor of tyrannical paternalism or consensual tribalism. McWorld on the other hand forges global markets rooted in consumption and profit-economically based if you will.-

How do these two groups affect the global markets economically? Well McWorlds rise began by selling the American Culture. Of the top 25 advertising firms, 15 are American, and thus sell American culture. How important is this? Well Pepsi placed an ad in 40 different markets that could be seen by 20% of the human race! The extent of such marketing goes to show you just how powerful certain aspects of the McWorld nature are. In many cases such corporations are more global players than nations themselves. McDonalds serves 20 million customers every day- that’s more people than the populations of Greece, Ireland, and Switzerland combined! Still not convinced? GM, the world’s largest company, employs more people than in many small countries. The overall effect of these McWorld associates reign in huge changes on the world, and the global economy, based on every decision they make.

When we talk about American based companies selling American culture, they cover several areas: popular culture, prosperity, ubiquitous imagery and software, and the American soul… Many argue that McWorld is one of the key flatteners and contributors to the global economy. In this global economy, services are the first “citizen” of McWorld. These services can be broken down into three sub categories. Traditional Service Sector: those who serve people directly with food, transportation, health, who deliver services directly to the individual human body. Systems Facilitation Sector: Those who serve the infrastructure including lawyers, accountants, bankers, and computer operators- all serve the corporate body. Information Sector: Those who create and control the world of signs and symbols through which all information, communication, and entertainment are mediated. They also minister to the individual human and collective corporate soul. An important note for this sector includes the well known saying: Knowledge is power. Moreover, he who controls information and communications can rule the world in the scheme of the global economy.

Well, what makes such a dynamic system run? Well you would be surprised… Hollywood is McWorlds storyteller, and TV and MTV are McWorlds soul. Who exactly controls McWorld you ask? Well there are currently about 23 corporations that control most of the business in daily newspapers, magazines, television, books, and motion pictures. The vertical integration of media is a relatively new phenomenon. This global frenzy is conducted under the goal of synergy. These “synergetic” ideas help create a common identity which is the direct enemy of Jihad.

In later posts we will explore the world of Jihad. Until then, just think, every time you see a Pepsi logo, or drink a Pepsi, over 20% of the world’s population can identify with you!

North Korea Opens its First Pizzeria

North Korea’s first pizzeria has opened in the capital city of Pyongyang. The initiative was started by Kim Jong-il and his tastes for fine dining.

Chefs were sent to Italy for culinary training in order to bring “the worlds best foods”, according to Kim, to North Korea.

Unfortunately many people in this closed off communist state live in poverty and rely solely on food aid. The wealthy however can afford a more luxurious life style, and thus fine dining. The famine stricken country has lost over 2 million of its own as a result of food shortages since the 1990s.

The restaurants Chef, Kim Sang-soon, is working closely with Kim to insure the restaurant lives up to the visions of the ruler. The restaurant imports all of its supplies, specifically flour, butter and cheese from Italy, and has been very busy since its opening in December.

One of the restaurants recent customers, Jong Un-suk said “I knew well from television and publications that pizza and spaghetti are world famous food, but it is the first time that I’ve tasted it”.

In addition to this new restaurant, the capital city of Pyongyang already has a successful friend chicken outlet as well.

The nation is one based on inward policy and isolationism, and while it would never reach out politically, this new idea of reaching out for food brings many new questions.Can other nations, such as the U.S. take advantage of this obsession of food Mr. Kim has in order to establish new political relations?

Could you imagine Obama sending Kim a Shark Fin Cou in exchange for recessed nuclear programs? Of course not, but it’s fun to think about!

Obama and Osama have more in common than we think….

Networking, as you all know now, is about building relationships and subsequently gathering assests. Bot Obama and Osama are MASTERMINDS in this field. Disagree? You’re wrong.

You see, this latest article, taken off cnn.com, helps us infer about the sheer volume of relationships Osama has- whether we like it or not.

(CNN)- Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden has called for Somalia’s new president to be overthrown, according to an audio recording posted Thursday on the Internet.
Osama bin Laden, in an undated photo, purportedly taped a message urging the ouster of Somalia’s president.

Bin Laden said Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed had been president of the country’s Islamic Courts but “as a result of inducements and offers from the American envoy in Kenya, he changed and turned back on his heels” … and agreed to partner with the “infidel” to form a government of national unity.

Sheikh Ahmed — whom Somali lawmakers elected president on January 31 — should be “dethroned, fought and removed with armed force,” the message said.

The bin Laden message is titled “Fight on, Champions of Somalia.” The authenticity of the recording could not be independently verified.

In my opinion, the fact that he can issue such a statement with over 30,000 American troops looking for him is crazy. The fact that he can cause such a disruption stems only from the fact that he has well built networks….across the world unfortunatley.  Yes you can argue that people follow him just because he is a terrorist, and other people who wish to do evil know he is a good outlet…etc. But isn’t that what networking is?

Lets look at this from another perspective….Obama.

Obama and his campaign team understood the importance of networking. How did they do it? They did it through personal identification using one word- hope. Think about it, everyone has hope, everyone can identify with hope, everyones individual hope is custom to their own lives, but most importantly hope is a term with limitless connotations, connotations that keep the world turning no matter what the political age, world state, or personal thoughts. Every religion is based on hope. For example, Christians hope they can carry out Gods work on earth, in hopes of being with him in heaven one day. Through the usage of this word, Obama grounded his campaign- finding an ingenous way to identify with every individual.

If you didnt’ hear him speak on T.V. while you watched in awe at his charisma and passion, you probably got a knock on your door from him personally or one of his supporters. This form of engagement is always an endearment to networking as discussed in previous posts…  Now let me make something very clear. As you have just read, networking is a very powerful thing, but as Batman said “With great power comes great responsibility”. Obama and Osama are the two extremes in this case……

In conclusion, you should be able to identify with how powerful networking is, one man used it to rally a nation, another man used it to bring horrible crimes to the forefront of humanity. In the case of Osama, the network he had built is so strong it has taken literally hundreds of thousands of troops, billions if not trillions of dollars, and over 6 years to significantly dismantle it.

Bridge Burners set Themselves on Fire

The obvious in life doesn’t always need repeating, however in some cases the obvious doesn’t always stick, and repetition is deemed necessary.

“If you don’t have anything nice to say, don’t’ say anything at all” is one of those obvious phrases that you hate hearing over and over..and over. You think such an idea is obvious- why would you express something negative to someone, what good does it do?

Well, it burns bridges.

Here is the simple scenario. You know the feeling when you are approached with a new idea, a new opportunity, a new path that looks promising, and you jump on it? Think of this as your island filled with new resources and opportunities.

Now, think of all the current relationships you have, all the opportunities you are currently striving towards, or even the business you are currently with. In your everyday life, most people create a subconscious social ladder in their head. In primary terms: I know I am better than him/her, he has a higher position than me and doesn’t’ deserve it…i.e. the things you think, but would never say. This is your homeland, your current niche and manifestation.

Well when approached with a new opportunity, and the right catch phrase, you may immediately assign yourself superiority- essentially get cocky. At this time, it is seen so often in business, people put down people they have worked with for years, and tell them what they really think. The motivation behind this is due to the fact that they believe this new idea will propel them to new heights.

Unintelligent

This is the concept of “bridge burning”- and trust me, while letting all that out might feel good, just wait until you realize the dangerous position you put yourself in.

After you cross that bridge, from your homeland to the new and promising island, and burn it, you can’t go back. Period.

In business, as you should understand from my previous posts, networking is VITAL. Why on earth would you practice such a concept as bridge burning? Build bridges people!

You never know when you will need something you hadn’t foreseen. What is most unfortunate, and usually the case, is that many times that bridge you just burned, and all the people you left on your homeland, will not help you with anything you ask. Why? Well human logic! If I am a farmer and I discovered this new chemical that will triple my corn yield- which upon discovery I tell you how I am the “big fish” and how you are nothing- but upon application it kills your entire corn crop, well when you need corn to feed your family and the emergency plan was your friend you just told off, guess what- your a cooked fish now.

The importance of this bridge building and not burning idea is highlighted in many business related text. If you want to explore it further, including methodology, origins, pros and cons, by all means check these links out!

Helium: http://www.helium.com/items/252848-careers-how-not-to-burn-bridges-when-you-leave-your-job

New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/05/business/yourmoney/05career.html

If you don’t’ have time to read all that text, keep this in mind: When you are leaving a job or relationship instead of releasing all of your pent up frustration, and putting down the person or group on the other side of the relationship, buy them a bottle of their favorite wine, take them out to dinner, give them lavish compliments, use this as an OPPORTUNITY to make a wooden bridge a steel one.

Work from wood to steel…why?

Steel doesn’t burn.